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Category: Treatments


Electroconvulsive Therapy in Adolescents vs Adults

The article summarizes the level of effectiveness of ECT for both adolescents and adults, which was concluded to be 58% for each. One important difference was that adolescents were generally in the "psychotic spectrum," whereas adults were in the "affective spectrum."

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Is Bipolar Disorder Still Underdiagnosed? Are Antidepressants Overutilized?

Research report that reviews frequency of bipolar diagnosis in patients with mood disorders and the prescription of antidepressants as treatment.

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Study of Lithium for Adolescent Bipolar Disorders with Secondary Substance Dependency

This study took place over a six week period with adolescent subjects diagnosed with bipolar disorder and substance dependence.  Average age of bipolar disorder onset was 9.6 years; average age of substance dependence was 15.3 years.  For the purposes of this short-term study, lithium was shown to be a useful treatment for adolescents suffering from both disorders. (August 1997)

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Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder: a Review of the Past 10 Years

by Barbara Geller, M.D. and Joan Luby, M.D.
J Am Acad Child Adoles Psychiatry 36:1168-1176, 1997

Objective: To provide a review of the epidemiology, phenomenology, natural course, comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment of child and adolescent bipolar disorder (BP) for the past 10 years. This review is provided to prepare applicants for recertification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Method: Literature from Medline and other searches for the past 10 years, earlier relevant articles, and the authors' experience and ongoing National Institute of Mental Health-funded project "Phenomenology and Course of Pediatric Bipolarity" were used. Results: Age-specific,developmental (child, adolescent, and adult) DSM-IV criteria manifestations; comorbidity and differential diagnoses; and episode and course features are provided. Included are age-specific examples of childhood grandiosity, hypersexuality, and delusions. Differential diagnoses (e.g. specific language disorders, sexual abuse, conduct disorder [CD], schizophrenia, substance abuse), suicidality, and BP-II are discussed. Conclusion: Available data strongly suggest that prepubertal onset BP is a nonepisodic, chronic, rapid cycling, mixed manic state that may be comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and CD or have features of ADHD and/or CD as initial manifestations. Systematic research on pediatric BP is in its infancy and will require ongoing and future studies to provide developmentally relevant diagnostic methods and treatment. J Am Acad Child AdolesPsychiatry, 1997, 36(9):1168-1176.

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Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder (1996)

This is a broad discussion of the medications and non-medication treatments recommended for the bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.  Reprinted with permission of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry and Lipincott Williams & Wilkins, publishers.

  1. Abstract, including:
    Introduction and Historical Review
    Diagnosis
  2. Treatment
  3. Practice Parameters
  4. References